The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  On a smaller scale, suppliers work under concession contracts awarded by local governments, businesses or other property owners. This activity may include restaurants and retail outlets at major airports, vendors at public fairs or the sale of food and beverage stalls in public parks. The aim of the agreement is to reduce the article 2 global warming and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC through adaptation issues that were further highlighted in the development of the Paris Agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker and the climate clock). The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an ”Annex 1” country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  Also known as concession agreements, concession agreements cover different sectors and are available in many sizes. These include hundreds of millions of dollars worth of mining concessions, as well as small food and beverage concessions at a local cinema.
Regardless of the type of concession, the dealer normally has to pay the concession fee to the party that grants it the concession fees. These fees and the rules that allow them to change are usually described in detail in the contract. On October 5, 2016, when the agreement reached enough signatures to cross the threshold, U.S. President Barack Obama said, ”Even if we achieve all the goals… we will only get to part of where we need to go. He also said that ”this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.” It will help other nations reduce their emissions over time and set bolder goals as technology progresses, all under a strong transparency system that will allow each nation to assess the progress of all other nations.   Concession agreements are sometimes used to exploit other nations. For example, foreign countries and companies forced China to make various concessions in the 19th and early 20th centuries.