Iran Iraq Algiers Agreement

The 2015 agreement lifted sanctions in exchange for Iran limiting aspects of its nuclear program, but Mr. Trump withdrew the deal. The 1975 Algiers Agreement (commonly known as the Algiers Agreement, sometimes also under the name of the Algiers Declaration) was an agreement between Iran and Iraq to settle disputes and conflicts over their common border (such as the Shatt al-Arab, known as Arvand Rud in Iran) and served as the basis for the bilateral agreements signed on 13 June and 26 December 1975. The agreement aimed to end disputes between Iraq and Iran over their borders at Shatt al-Arab Waterway and Khuzestan, but Iraq also wanted to end the Kurdish rebellion. Less than six years after the signing of the treaty on 17 September 1980, Iraq repealed the treaty, but under international law a nation cannot unilaterally withdraw from a previously ratified treaty and the treaty contained no clause providing for unilateral withdrawal. On 13 June 1975, the foreign ministers of Iraq and Iran signed another treaty in Baghdad. He added details to agreements on conflict resolution and border fixing, as well as possible changes. The treaty is called ”Iran-Iraq: Treaty on International Borders and Good Neighborhood Relations.” In May 1974, Iraq and Iran began marking the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud) border between them. At the 1974 Arab League summit, representatives of the Iranian government participated in a meeting with Iraqi representatives through King Hussein of Jordan. [12] Talks between the two countries continued sporadically, with Iraq reluctant to abandon the territory allocated to it by the 1937 Treaty. Iran has stepped up its support for the Kurds, which has greatly exacerbated the Iraqi army`s problems. Saddam Hussein and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi attended the OPEC summit in Algiers on 6 March 1975, where an agreement was reached and signed under the aegis of Houari Boumediene, then president of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria.

In 1979, under Saddam`s leadership, Iraq withdrew from the agreement and the riverbed changed considerably since the signing of the agreement, with the Iraqis claiming they had lost territory. Today, more than 40 years after the signing, neighbouring countries this week declared their intention to implement the agreement. The agreement was signed to settle border disputes and then served as the basis for other bilateral treaties, but was denounced in 1980 by the then Iraqi Vice-President Saddam Hussein. Iran itself has threatened to withdraw from the agreement if EU powers do not protect its economic benefits. Although the agreement did not mention the Kurds by name, its willingness to end infiltration across the border, if carried out, appeared to be a blow to the hopes of General Mustafa Barzani`s Kurdish rebels to gain autonomy. But why is a decades-long agreement important for Iraq, and in particular for Iran, and what does this rapprochement mean for regional and global dynamics? The agreement divided the shatt al-Arab river between Iran and Iraq and then served as the basis for other bilateral agreements, including economic relations. The agreement was announced by President Houari Boumediene, who brought the Shah and the Lord.

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