Although the members were appointed by mutual agreement, they should commit themselves not to defend their national interests, but to take the oath to defend the general interests of the Community as a whole. Their independence was supported by the fact that no member was refused (paid or unpaid) outside of authority or commercial interests during their term of office and for three years after their termination.  In order to continue to ensure impartiality, one-third of members should be renewed every two years (Article 10). The Joint Assembly (which later became the European Parliament) was composed of 78 representatives and exercised control over the High Executive Authority. The representatives of the Common Assembly should be delegated annually by their parliaments to the Assembly or directly elected ”by universal suffrage” (Article 21), whereas in practice they were the first, since there was no obligation to vote until the Treaty of Rome and there were no effective elections until 1979, Rome having first requested an agreement on the Council. However, to emphasize that the House was not a traditional international organization made up of representatives of national governments, the Treaty of Paris used the term ”representatives of peoples.”  The Assembly was not originally defined in the Schuman Plan, as it was hoped that the Community would use the council`s institutions (Assembly, Court of Justice). When British objections made this impossible, separate institutions had to be created. The Assembly was conceived as a democratic counterweight and control over the High Authority to advise, but also to have the power to dismiss the Authority for incompetence, injustice, corruption or fraud. The first president (similar to a spokesman) was Paul Henri Spaak.
 The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organization of six European countries created after the Second World War to regulate its industrial production under central authority. Founded in 1951 by the Treaty of Paris, it was signed by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany. The ECSC was the first international organization to build on the principles of supranationalism and to launch the formal integration process that eventually led to the European Union. Despite these attacks and attacks from the far left, the ECSC has received considerable public support and was founded.